Chemical Characterization of 64 Propolis Samples from Hakkari, Turkey
Nesrin Ecem Bayram, Kadriye Sorkun, Gül Cevahir Öz, Bekir Salih, Gülaçtı Topçu
Department of Food Processing, Aydıntepe Vocational College, Bayburt University, 69500-Bayburt,Türkiye
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Hacettepe University, 06800- Ankara, Türkiye
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Istanbul University, 34134-Istanbul, Türkiye
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Hacettepe University, 06800- Ankara, Türkiye
Department of Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Bezmialem Vakıf University, 34093-Istanbul, Türkiye
Abstract: Propolis is a resinous substance produced by honey bees from various plants they visit. Sixty-four propolis samples were collected from different localities of four districts (Merkez, Yüksekova, Şemdinli, and Çukurca) in Hakkari territory. Ethanol extracts of the propolis samples were prepared, and their chemical contents were determined by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS). Flavonoids were generally found in a high concentration in Şemdinli samples of Turkey. Twenty-seven coumarins were identified in the 28 propolis samples among studied 64 ones. Except suberosin, the coumarins were never reported before in any propolis sample with Turkish origin. The propolis samples belonging to Yüksekova were found to be richer in coumarins than the others, and the most richest one among the Yüksekova apiaries, was found to be Akocak sample (Y2) with 41.99% total yield, followed by Akçalı sample (Y5) (30.86%). This is a first comprehensive and original report about the chemical profile of propolis samples from Hakkari. The propolis samples from Hakkari exhibited a chemical content rich in flavonoids including coumarins and furocoumarins.
Keywords: Chemical analysis; coumarin; flavonoid; Hakkari; propolis. © 2018 ACG Publications. All rights reserved.