Antifungal Compounds Isolated from Smyrnium olusatrum L. Essential Oil, Growing Wild in Cephalonia, Greece. Chemical Analysis and Structure Elucidation
Records of Natural Products
Year: 2016 Issue: 1 January-February
p.93 - 102
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Gerasimia Tsasi, Marina Soković, Ana Cirić, Effimia Eriotou, Eleni Sakadani, Yiannis Samaras and Helen Skaltsa
The essential oils (EOs) from the leaves and the flowers of Smyrnium olusatrum L. , growing wild in the island of Cephalonia (Greece), were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Fifty nine constituents, which accounted for 90.3% (fl) and 97.1% (lvs) of the oils, were identified. Furanodiene, g ermacrone and furanoeremophil-1-one were the major constituents in both essential oils; they were also isolated from the flowers essential oil and identified using spectroscopic methods, ie. 1D and 2D NMR, GC-MS . In addition b -myrcene ( 11.7%) and b -phellandrene (5.2%) were main constituents in the essential oil of the leaves. The essential oils and the pure isolates were evaluated for antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus , A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, A. niger, Trichoderma viride, Penicillium funiculosum, P. ochrochloron, P. verucosum var. cyclopium by using the microdilution method and proved to possess significant antifungal effect. Among them, (+) furanoeremophil-1-one was particularly active with MIC values in the range of 0.0008-0.125 mg/mL and MFC values of 0.025-0.050 mg/mL and proved more effective than the commercial mycotics ketoconazole and bifonazole used as positive controls.KEYWORDS
- Smyrnium olusatrum
- essential oil
- (+) furanoeremophil-1-one
- (-) germacrone
- antifungal activity .