Records of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
A scientific open access journal in the field of agricultural and food chemistry.
Records of Agricultural and Food ChemistryA scientific open access journal in the field of agricultural and food chemistry.
An Application of Mixture Design: A Case Study on Blending of Olive Oils by Design-Expert
For quality control, raw material, semi-finished, and finished product analysis in chemistry, biochemistry, food, and environmental sciences, well-designed experimental strategies are needed to perform all experimental studies at minimum cost and under optimum conditions. The steps in the experimental strategies essentially constitute the experimental procedure followed, and here the aim is to select a model for the experimental procedure, to determine the number of experiments and experimental factor limitations for each run, to identify the correlation between experimental results and factors, and to optimise the experimental factors. The response surface methodology as an experimental design method also reduces the number of experiments required for multi-factor trials for optimisation. Mixture design, a special type of response surface function, is a very effective method for determining the proportions of components or variables in a mixture. A three-component mixture is represented by a triangle, which is a two-dimensional cross-section of a three-dimensional space represented by a cube representing the region where the proportions of the three components are added up to 100%. The points within this triangle or blend area represent possible blends, where: three corners correspond to single components, points along the edges to binary mixtures, the dots in the triangle to triad mixtures, and the centre of the triangle to an equal mix of all three components. Several common designs can be considered as ways to determine the logical number and arrangement of points in a simplex, the most well-known being the Simplex Centroid and Simplex Lattice patterns. This study focused on an experimental design application for fourteen blends of olive oils from four cultivars A–D mixed in the design presented together with a taste panel score for each blend and statistical evaluation of the results for mixture design applications. The higher the score is the better the taste of the olive oil. Here, the mixture design chosen for optimising blending ratios was Simplex-Lattice, and DesignExpert 7.3 software was used for statistical analysis. Comparing of calculated correlation coefficients of the response surface function and its parameters, and function constants, it could be understood that as the correlation coefficient would be 0.21 for used linear terms only, adding quadratic terms into the function increases it to 0.92 drastically.DOI http://doi.org/10.25135/rfac.16.2303.2736 Keywords Olive oil blending mixture design response surface Available online: May 27, 2023 DETAILS DOWNLOAD PDF © ACG Publications. All rights reserved.
Seed Oil Extraction of Cucurbita maxima Duchesne Growing in Madagascar: Impact of Storage and Use of a Cineole–Rich Essential Oil as a Green Solvent
The performance of a cineole-rich essential oil as an extraction solvent for vegetable oil was studied. This essential oil was obtained from Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) St Blake Myrtaceae, commonly called niaouli, an invasive plant on the eastern coast of Madagascar. The whole essential oil was used without preliminary isolation of terpenes. Experimentation was carried out with Cucurbita maxima Duchesne Cucurbitaceae seeds. The Soxhlet method was used for the oil extraction, and solvent recovery was performed by hydrodistillation. Niaouli essential oil allowed a better extraction yield of 39% compared to hexane, with 36%. The linoleic acid content of the oil was also higher: 37.19% against 7.25% for hexane. After 30 weeks of storage, the seed powder linoleic acid content increased to 44.99% for niaouli oil against 25.00% for hexane oil. With the screw press extraction method, the best yield of 13.00% was obtained with roasting pretreatment while heating at 60°C. However, the best oleic acid content of 45.36% was obtained at 50°C. It was demonstrated that the seed powder underwent biochemical changes during storage which were similar to intracellular catabolic reactions of fatty acids. The high expenses induced by the deterpenation process in terms of cost and energy limit the diffusion and the development of the use of terpenes as alternative solvents. The results of this research support the idea that it is possible to avoid this costly step by directly using the entire essential oil since this can provide a vegetable oil of good quality.DOI http://doi.org/10.25135/rfac.15.2212.2662 Keywords Pumpkin seed oil green solvent Melaleuca quinquenervia linoleic acid skin care Available online: April 26, 2023 DETAILS DOWNLOAD PDF © ACG Publications. All rights reserved.